Libyan revolution

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A few years ago I'd have to pay someone for this infomrtaion.

The Libyan revolution is a part of Arab Spring. The ongoing civil war was sparked by Benghazi rebels who established the National Transitional Council (NTC), the opposition party, fighting to depose Muammar el-Qaddafi from his 42-year-long dictatorship to set up democratic elections.

The civil war began in February 2011 with rebel fighters claiming large parts of eastern Libya, but their efforts were undermined by Qaddafi's military forces. NATO's intervention in late March helped the rebel force regain momentum.


[edit] Recent developments

[edit] Qaddafi last tracked in southern Libya

The deposed leader is suspected to have fled the desert town of Bani Walid and is heading south towards Chad or Niger based on reports from a senior military official of Libya’s interim leadership. Over 200 pro-Qaddafi convoys entered Niger in early September 2011.

[edit] Qaddafi intelligence spied rebel forces

Recent reports reveal that the Libyan spy operation under Colonel Qaddafi was unorganized with frequent inaccuracies regarding the rebel forces.

[edit] Paris summit

63 international leaders attended a conference headed by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and UK Prime Minister David Cameron to recognize the National Transitional Council (NTC) as the legitimate governing force of Libya and help with security issues and transition to democracy.

Divisions arose as the race for Libyan oil created disagreement on whether countries could receive preferential treatment from Libya's oil companies based on foreign support provided to rebel forces.

[edit] A house divided

While Saadi Qaddafi stated he would be ready to end the fighting in Libya earlier this week, the deposed leader’s more outspoken son, Saif al-Islam Qaddafi, spoke of resistance and 20,000 armed forces ready to support regime loyalists.

[edit] Libyan rebels give weekend deadline to surrender

Libya’s interim council chairman initially stated that if the deposed leader does not comply to a negotiated surrender by Saturday September 4, military actions will be taken. The NTC later extended its deadline for Qaddafi to surrender by one week.

[edit] Organization

The protests, unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 15 February 2011. On the evening of 15 February, between 500 and 600 demonstrators protested in front of Benghazi's police headquarters after the arrest of human rights lawyer Fathi Terbil. The protest was broken up violently by police, resulting in clashes and civilian injuries. A "Day of Rage" in Libya and by Libyans in exile was planned for 17 February.

The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي, al-Majlis al-Waṭanī al-'intiqālī) was established February 27 in an effort to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. The main objectives of the group did not include forming an interim government, but instead to coordinate resistance efforts between the different towns held in rebel control, and to give a political "face" to the opposition to present to the world.

[edit] Role of NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) played a pivotal role in aiding Libyan rebel fighters to its current offensive position with Qadaffi's security defenses. NATO's air campaigns against Qadaffi helped neutralize the playing field, which was characterized by a motley group of unorganized yet passionate rebels and a more structured and well-trained Qadaffi military.

Analysts from think tanks state that the new government will need to rely on more than just the western military alliance to gain credibility and not appear to be a "NATO puppet". The Arab League and United Nations are being called on to help with the transition to a democracy. [1]

[edit] European Union commitments with cash and in-kind

European aid by individual member nations of the EU for the Libyan revolution ranged from expert personnel to various amounts of cash according to a report by the European Commission. European Community Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) also contributed €70,000,000.

[edit] Libyan rebels gain Tripoli

Read more: Battle for Tripoli

Libyan rebels overtook Tripoli Sunday August 21, 2011. The event marks a crucial victory for protestors and rebel fighters involved in a six-month long uprising. The capital is viewed as Muammar el-Qaddafi's last stronghold in a country he has ruled for over four decades. The armed rebels faced little resistance when rushing into Tripoli. The Khamis Brigade, Qaddafi's elite military unit in charge of defending the capital surrendered to the Libyan rebel force. There are reports that the dictator's unit commander joined the revolution and told his troops to drop their arms.

The rebel fighters arrested two of Qadaffi's sons and are now at the Bab al-Aziziya compound, which they have yet to take control over.

[edit] Qaddafi's Flight to Algeria

On 27th August, it was reported by the Egyptian news agency Mena that Libyan rebel fighters had seen six armoured Mercedes-Benz sedans, possibly carrying top Gaddafi regime figures, cross the border at the south-western Libyan town of Ghadames towards Algeria, which at the time was denied by the Algerian authorities.

On 29th August, the Algerian government officially announced that Safia Farkash together with Ayesha and her brothers Muhammad and Hannibal, had crossed into Algeria early on Monday 29th August. An Algerian Foreign Ministry official said all the people in the convoy were now in Algiers, and that none of them had been named in warrants issued by the International Criminal Court for possible war crimes charges.

Mourad Benmehidi, the Algerian permanent representative to the United Nations, later confirmed the details of the statement. The family had arrived at a Sahara desert entry point, in a Mercedes and a bus at 8:45 a.m. local time. The exact number of people in the party was unconfirmed, but there were “many children” and they did not include Colonel Gaddafi. As a result, the group was allowed in on humanitarian grounds. In addition, Qaddafi's daughter Ayesha was pregnant in her ninth month. Libya's rebels said sheltering Gaddafi family members was an act of aggression, and called for their extradition.

On 30 August, it was announced that Ayesha had given birth to a baby girl.

[edit] Transition to new government

Analysts are beginning to question how the country will fare in a post-Qaddafi era and are raising questions regarding succession. Economic recovery and government reconstruction efforts are being encouraged by international leaders. Britain, France, Italy and the U.S. among others have sent diplomats to work with rebel leaders in Benghazi.

Representatives of the new Libyan government met with Russian officials in Moscow to discuss new energy deals as reported by the state-run RIA Novosti on September 3rd. Russia was slow to recognize the National Transitional Council. This meeting may have resulted from the NTC's stated favor for energy deals with NATO members for their support during the revolution. The status of current energy deals with the new government remains unclear.

[edit] Implications: Oil production

Oil prices are dropping amidst speculation that Libyan oil production will pick up again. Libya has one of the largest oil reserves in the world, exporting 1.3 million barrels of oil a day before the civil war. Production was stifled during the drawn out conflict between rebel forces and the Qadaffi loyalists when oil companies began to withdraw personnel. Oil experts predict that with a new government in place, it make take up to one year to repair plants. [2]

Although the U.S. receives less than 1% of Libyan imports, it has suffered higher gas and oil prices due to increased demand due to Libya's lagging production. Italy and France are highly invested with 80% of Libya's oil production going to these countries.

[edit] Related Newsroot articles

Egyptian revolution

Syrian revolution

[edit] Sources

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article 2011 Libyan civil war and Ayesha Gaddafi which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

"Little Resistance as Rebels Enter Tripoli." New York Times. August 21, 2011.

"Gadhaffi Regime Close to Collapse." USA Today. August 21, 2011.

"Rebels Sweep into Tripoli." Wall Street Journal. August 22, 2011.

"Libyan Rebels in Tripoli's Central Square." Al Jazeera English. August 22, 2011.

"EU AND ECHO CONTRIBUTION TO UNREST IN LIBYA." European Commission. August 22, 2011.

"Moscow invited new Libyan govt. to discuss energy - Lavrov." RIA Novosti. September 3, 2011.

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